The south western corner of Crimea was well protected by coastal artillery during the Crimea War of 1852. Facilities were upgraded and formed a formidable defence system by the time of World War II. When the Germans attacked the Crimea in autumn 1941, two of the largest batrtreries were nicknamed Maxim Gorky 1 and 2, after the Soviet author of that name. To the Soviets they were, respectively, Armoured Coastal Batteries 30 and 35.
Maxim Gorky 1 had extensive underground facilities including crew quarters, ammunition storage and control rooms. An emergency exit was also provided, mirroring a mediaeval sally port. The German attack disabled one of the turrets but the Soviets maintained the other continued firing until the ammunition ran out.
Post war, the battery was restored using 305 mm gun turrets from the battleship Frunze. The battery remained operational until 1997 but was still under care and maintenance when a Sub Brit visit passed by in May 2005.