Site Name: WAPPING TUNNEL
[Source: Paul Wright]
By the 1890s locomotives were much more powerful than could ever have been envisaged in 1830 and thoughts turned to using them in the Wapping tunnel. To facilitate locomotive working ventilation shafts were built at Crown Street, Myrtle Street, Blackburne Place, Rathbone Street and White Street. It is possible that the shafts were dug where the original vertical shafts had been.
To the east of Wapping Goods station the Wapping tunnel was opened out to the east of the Park Lane and Jamaica Street junction cutting it into two. At the same time two new tunnels were constructed between an enlarged Wapping Goods station and the cutting. The 'new' western portal of the longer section of the Wapping tunnel flared slightly to accommodate a three way junction. To control the junction a signal box was built in the north side of the cutting wall. The works were completed by 11 May 1896 when locomotive working began.
The 'new' western portal of the Wapping tunnel created by the opening out of the line at Park Lane/Jamaica Street in 1895/6 seen in the 1930s. The works were undertaken to facilitate locomotive working through the tunnel and to increase capacity at Wapping Goods station:
Photo by D Ibbotson
Even with the introduction of locomotive working gravity was still used in the down direction (Wapping direction). Specially fitted brake vans were allocated to the Wapping branch for this purpose and each train had one at each end for the journey down to Wapping Goods station. The brake vans were usually attached to the train within the Chatsworth Street cutting were the locomotive would be detached as had been the case prior to 1896.
Locomotives were only used to haul the up direction trains (Edge Hill direction) and they travelled light or coupled together in pairs or groups from Edge Hill to Wapping Goods. The locomotives used only the up line to travel down to Wapping Goods which in effect made the up line an ‘up and down line’ for locomotives but only an up line for trains. The down line was only used for down trains that were worked by gravity. Clearances within the tunnel were probably the reason for this working practice.
Despite the method of working described above and the installation of the air vents conditions in the Wapping tunnel after the introduction of locomotive working were described as chocking and locomotive crews did not enjoy the passage through with a heavily loaded train.
One of the 0-6-0 diesel shunting locomotives that had been introduced onto the Wapping branch in the 1930s is seen in the 1950s at Chatsworth Street having just emerged from the Wapping tunnel.
On 1 January 1923 the Wapping branch became part of the London Midland & Scottish Railway (LMS). The LMS renamed Wapping Goods station as Park Lane. In the 1930s the LMS introduced 0-6-0 diesel shunting locomotives onto the Wapping branch which made the tunnel environment slightly more bearable for those that worked within it. Certainly it was better for the locomotive crews as they were in an enclosed cab.
During the Second World War Park Lane Goods station was extensively damaged and the signal box frontage was replaced with an ARP design structure.
Looking west towards the Wapping tunnel from the Wapping branch down line in the 1930s.
On 1 January 1948 the Wapping tunnel and Park Lane Goods station became part of British Railways [London Midland Region] (BR [LMR]).
The Liverpool Docks system had been spreading northwards since the 1840s and it each time a new dock was built it was larger than its predecessor. By the 1950s the north docks handled the majority of the traffic and only the smaller vessels used the older south docks. By the 1960s the oldest docks of all which were close to Park Lane Goods station were seeing very little traffic at all. At the same time much more traffic was going by road and BR [LMR] had numerous goods stations within the Liverpool Docks complex. It was inevitable therefore that Park Lane the oldest goods station in Liverpool would close and it did so on 1 November 1965.
The closure of Park Lane left the Wapping branch that ran through the tunnel devoid of traffic and it was lifted shortly after the closure of the goods station. Wapping tunnel ceased to have any purpose for the first time in 136 years.
The Crown Street ventilation shaft seen looking north on 8 April 2014. This shaft was built where the original Liverpool terminus of the Liverpool & Manchester railway had been.
Photo by Paul Wright
In 1969 the Merseyside Passenger Transport Authority (MPTE) was formed and building upon work that had been carried out by the local authorities during the 1960s they set about transforming the local railway network into what became the Merseyrail system. One of the key developments was the creation of an underground loop and link line in the city centre an Act for the construction of which was granted in 1971. In the initial plans the Wapping tunnel featured as a second phase of the developments. The idea was to link it to Liverpool Central Low Level station which became the Northern Line platforms of the link line. Trains would then have travelled between Liverpool Central and St Helens via the Wapping tunnel. The plans were then amended in order to create a new line under the University district. The new plan would have seen only a short section of the Wapping tunnel used at its mid-point. As well as being connected to Liverpool Central it would also have been connected, via a new tunnel, to the Victoria tunnel on the Waterloo dock branch. This would have allowed the St Helens trains to pass under the main line out of Liverpool Lime Street and serve the University. An Act for the second plan was granted in 1975 but the recession of the late 1970s stopped the work from going ahead. A short section of the tunnel that would have connected the Wapping tunnel to Liverpool Central was built at the latter location.
The Merseyrail link line was designed to create a through route between the former CLC and the former Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway (the terminus of which was at Liverpool Exchange) systems. The former CLC main line (closed to passengers on 17 April 1972) had to be altered so that it could descend to the former Liverpool Central Low Level platforms. An incline was created inside the Great George Street tunnel which broke through the roof of the Wapping tunnel. A concrete deck bridge was constructed that spanned the Wapping tunnel and carried the Merseyrail line over it. The works were carried out in the 1975 – 76 period and passenger trains first started to run on 3 January 1978.
A map from a 1975 Merseyrail leaflet showing the line that was proposed between Liverpool Central and Edge Hill. A short section of the line at the western end would have been in the Wapping tunnel.
In 1980 it was the 150th anniversary of the opening of the L&M which led to a resurgence of interest in its features. For a period the public were admitted to the Chatsworth Street cutting which was at that time derelict. This could have led to a future for the Wapping tunnel as a tourist attraction but it was perhaps a decade or two too early as at that time the fortunes of Liverpool were at a very low ebb.
In the 1990s a road scheme was proposed that would have used the Wapping tunnel to create a quick route to the waterfront from the M62 motorway. These plans also came to nothing. In the first decade of the 21st century the 1970s plan to link Liverpool Central to the Wapping tunnel and to create a line through the University district was looked at again and at the time of writing was still being discussed.
In 201x the Wapping tunnel was used by Jaguar Landrover as a film location to make an advertisement for its Landrover Evoke.
Since 1965 the tunnel has remained silent (with the exception of the Evoke advert) beneath the streets of Liverpool. At the Wapping Goods station end it has suffered from being partly in filled with industrial rouble a shocking example of legally sanctioned vandalism. The infill material has created a flooded section of the tunnel about 50 metres in from the 1896 western portal. Other than the damage caused at the western end the tunnel was in remarkably good condition when visited in October 2012.
Of the five ventilation towers built in 1895/6 only those at Crown Street, Blackburn Place and White Street were still standing in 2014. The Myrtle Street and Rathbone Street towers had been demolished and their shafts, leading into the tunnel, had been capped off at ground level.
To see more photographs of the Wapping tunnel click on the links below