Site Records


SiteName: Hollingbourne (Kent) Zero Station

Rigglestone Lane
Hollingbourne, Kent
OS Grid Ref: TQ864556

Sub Brit site visit November 1997

[Source: Stewart Angell]

The Special Duties Organisation, branch of the Auxiliary Units, was formed after the sabotage side of the resistance had already been established. Its members were never told of the many patrols in existence all around the country. The Special Duties Organisation's role involved radio communications and spying. The headquarters for the unit was located at Hannington Hall, Hannington, Wiltshire. The section's personnel consisted of spies, cut-outs, out-station radio operators and the people who would operate the control and zero stations.

Unlike the sabotage-minded patrols both men and women could be chosen for the task of spying. The main people recruited for this role were people whose jobs allowed plenty of movement - doctors, midwives, postmen, vicars and farm workers. These people were trained separately in their own areas, being taught how to make simple intelligence reports. In the event of a German invasion they would have carried on their usual business or routine, making reports of any German troop movements, or anything else of interest they had observed. Once a report was completed the spy needed to pass the information on to a radio operator. This was achieved by use of a secret 'letter box'. This could take many forms. For instance an old tin can, or hole in a tree or under a rock could be adopted. All that was required was a place where the report could be hidden and be accessible to the radio operator.

Photo:The main chamber - the emergency escape tunnel is visible through the second doorway
Photo by Nick Catford

If the radio operator did not pick up the report himself, someone known as a 'cut-out' would pick it up and transfer it to a second secret letter box where it could be retrieved for transmission. The use of this system kept the identity of the spies and cut-outs from the radio-operators and vice-versa.

A radio operator along with his equipment was classified as an out-station. The radio's whereabouts had to be kept totally secret. This was achieved by siting most of the radios in underground hideouts. The radio used by the Special Duties Organisation was purpose built to be basic in design and simple to use. The radio sets measured approximately 15 inches long, 6 inches high and 5 inches wide. They worked on the, then rarely used, frequency between 60 and 65 megacycles that was probably not even monitored by the Germans. A six volt car battery was used to power the radio set. This needed a 40 feet long aerial to be able to transmit its messages. Had the Germans landed the radio operators would have carried on with their normal occupations, only visiting their out-stations to transmit short reports of information. These out-station operators would all be transmitting to their local control stations, of which Sussex had three. The purpose of a control station was to relay information gained from the various out-stations back to headquarters at Hannington Hall.

Photo:The main entrance to the zero station
Photo by Nick Catford

A control station was operated by three specially trained women of the ATS Auxiliary Unit, each station having two transmitters and two receivers. One set was for everyday use whilst the whole radio network was in training, the other to be used in the event of an invasion. The training set was often housed in a surface building. The other set would have been close by in an underground hideout known as a 'zero station', so-called because when the station's code-name was used it was always followed by the code suffix 'zero'. There were no transmitting schedules for the out-station operators to keep so the women would have to listen for messages coming in for long stretches of time. The purpose of a Zero Station was to receive coded information from the many out-stations in the surrounding area, passing on the details via a direct phone line to the Special Duties headquarters at Hannington Hall.

The Hollingbourne Zero station is identical in design to other examples still accessible in Sussex and Hampshire, the only variant being the length of the emergency exit tunnel. The women operatives of these Zero Stations were members of the ATS with Beatrice Temple as their Senior Commander. Miss Temple would often visit the underground sites around the country to check that the women were all right and generally monitor how the system was working. The Royal Corps of Signals were in charge of checking and maintaining the radio equipment.

Built on a solid concrete base with corrugated iron arched across to form its roof, the hideout resembles, like many of the sabotage patrol hideouts, an underground Nissan hut. Entrance was gained by lifting a concealed earth-covered wooden trapdoor. With the trapdoor open, a wooden ladder led down the entrance shaft, which opened out into a small room containing explosives and ammunition. This room was made to appear as if it were the only one, giving no indication of the main chamber, behind one of its walls, containing all the radio equipment. A system of shelves and carefully-stacked boxes hid the 5ft high door leading to this main chamber

When a secret catch was lifted, a section of the shelving moved out of the way, allowing the door to be opened. Along with the radio equipment, the main chamber contained a small table with chairs, bunk beds, spare batteries with a generator to recharge them and a good supply of food. The batteries were used for powering the radio equipment and a simple lighting arrangement.

The other end of the main chamber led into another small room which contained a chemical toilet, a drain in the floor, storage space and the entrance to the emergency exit tunnel. The three feet wide emergency exit tunnel was 16 feet long and terminated by opening out into a square concrete structure that had an earth covered wooden hatch above it concealing its existence. Fresh air was supplied into the hideout by two one foot diameter asbestos pipes. One was positioned just off the floor and the other just below the roof. They ran along from the main chamber through the small end room until coming to the surface disguised as the holes of a badger sett.

The 40 foot long wire aerial ran up an adjacent oak tree trunk. A groove was cut out of the tree bark and the aerial wire hidden in the groove. The bark would then have been put back into the groove and fixed in position.

The Hollingbourne Zero Station is located in a narrow strip of woodland between two fields, 150 yards south of Rigglestone Lane. The entrance shaft is covered by a sheet of corrugated metal and is located close to a large fallen tree. The emergency exit tunnel in bushes 30 yards to the south can also be entered. The shelter is quite shallow but is still in excellent condition.

For a detailed history of the Auxiliary Units in Sussex see Stewart Angell's book The Secret Sussex Resistance. Published by Middleton Press ISBN 1 873793 820

 

[Source: Stewart Angell]

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