Site Name: Channel Tunnel - 1880 attempt
Sub Brit site visits June 1984, June 1985 & December 1988
[Source: Nick Catford]
The present heading is 7 feet in diameter. Machinery is being constructed by which this 7 feet hole can be enlarged to 14 feet by cutting an annular space, 3 feet 6 inches wide, around it. This will be done by machinery furnished with an upper bore head. One machine will follow the other, at a proper interval; and the debris from the cutting by the first will be passed out through the second machine, The compressed air, likewise, which is necessary to work the advanced machine, will be similarly passed through the machine coming behind; only two men are at present needed for each machine.
Photo:Part of the 1880 tunnel intersected by the later excavation in 1988
At the end of the tunnel the visitors found one of the Beaumont compressed air boring machines at work. The length of this machine from the borer to the tail end is about 33 feet. Its work is done by the cutting action of short steel cutters fixed in two revolving arms, seven cutters in each, the upper portion of the frame in which the borer is fixed moving forward 5/16ths of an inch with every complete revolution of the cutters, In this way a thin paring from the whole face of the chalk is cut away with every turn of the borer, A man in front shovels the crumbled debris into small buckets, which, traveling on an endless band, shoots the dirt into a skip tended by another man. The skip when filled is run along a tramway to the mouth of the shaft. At present these trolleys, each holding about one third of a cubic yard, are drawn by men; but before long it is hoped that small compressed air engines will be used for traction. The rate of progress is about one hundred yards per week, but will soon be much accelerated. As worked at present, the number of revolutions it makes is two or three per minute, which amounts to being nearly an inch a minute while the machine is at work. But Colonel Beaumont anticipates no difficulty in making the machine cut its way at the rate of 3/8ths of an inch per revolution, and getting five revolutions per minute, which would give a rate of advance of two inches per minute
The boring has now advanced to the length of 1,250 yards and it is going on at the rate of three miles a year, which speed of working, as we said, will be increased. Simultaneous borings from the French side at the same rate would give six miles a year, or a complete tunnel underneath and across the Channel in three years and a half.
The shape which the completed tunnel will assume will probably be a
circle, 14 feet in diameter, but flattened at the bottom to receive
the rails. It will be lined with two feet thickness of cement concrete;
not that this is necessary to ensure the stability of the work, but
to prevent accidental falls of chalk. The concrete will be made of shingle
from Dungeness, and of cement formed from the grey chalk excavated from
the tunnel itself. In this manner, the tunnel will afford the means
of its own lining at a cheap rate. The gradients will be 1 in 80, on
each side, until the depth of 150 feet below the bottom of the sea is
reached; after which the line may be said to be level, subject only
to a very slight inclination from the centre outwards, to prevent the
lodgings of water.
Photo:The only remaining accessible section of the tunnel at Shakespeare Cliff, as the tunnel dips downwards the water eventually comes up to the roof
Photo by Nick Catford
The Channel Tunnel locomotive will weigh from sixty to seventy tons, and will be charged with 1,200 cubic feet of air, compressed to the density of seventy atmospheres, the equivalent of which is over 80,000 cubic feet of free air. This will give power sufficient to draw a train of 250 tons gross weight (including the engine) the distance of twenty-two miles under the sea, Assuming that the rate of traveling be thirty miles an hour, the air discharged by the engine would give a supply of free and pure air to the amount of 2,000 cubic feet, approximately, which will be far in excess of what is needed by the passengers in the train. Reservoirs will be placed at convenient intervals, so that the engines, should they need it, may be replenished with compressed air. It will, therefore, be seen that Colonel Beaumont's system of compressed-air engines affords equal advantages with the ordinary steam locomotives, and with no increase in weight."
Later visitors to the tunnel included the prime minister and Mrs. Gladstone, the Prince of Wales and the Archbishop of Canterbury but the Military Committee were not convinced and two Bills submitted to Parliament did not receive their recommendation.
In an attempt to put a stop to the tunnel the Board of Trade invoked
Section 77 of the South Eastern Railway Act of 1881 which forbade tunneling
beyond the low water mark without specific authority and demanded the
boring should stop; after protesting the company agreed to suspend the
operation. Watkin informed the Board of Trade that by turning off the
machine, which was also responsible for the ventilation in the tunnel,
it would be putting the lives of the workforce at risk. The Board of
Trade relented and tunneling continued pending an inspection by the
Photo:The entrance to the tunnel in 1984. The entrance has now been rebuilt and replaced by a secure steel door.
Photo by Nick Catford
Watkin put various obstacles in the way of this inspection and eventually the Board of Trade applied for a High Court order giving them access to the Shakespeare Cliff heading; following this the tunneling stopped. Following the inspection the Board recommended that the work should cease but Watkin again ignored this request and continued boring the tunnel whenever there were no visitors.
By the end of 1882 the Abbot's Cliff heading had reached 897 yards and that at Shakespeare Cliff was 2,040 yards in length. The Board of Trade paid a further visit and reported that a further 70 yards had been bored in breach of the injunction as a result the Board took out further court proceedings against the company despite the fact that they later admitted their calculations were wrong.
In the following years numerous Bills were put before Parliament both by the South Eastern Railway, the Submarine Continental Railway and other tunneling rivals but all were thrown out and this valiant first attempt at building a Channel was dealt its final fatal blow in 1898 when the South Eastern Railway and The Channel Tunnel Co. Ltd (which had by this time merged with Submarine Continental Railway Co) were permanently restrained from any further boring beneath the sea bed by the Chancery Division of the High Court.
Both shafts were infilled and the No. 2 heading lay forgotten until 1974 when another tunnel was proposed and work restarted at the Shakespeare Cliff site. As the 1882 tunnel was likely to be bisected by the new bore, the original No. 2 shaft was excavated and the tunnel dewatered to remove any iron lining that may have got in the way of the new boring machine. The shaft was found to be unlined down to solid rock and a circular steel ribbed and timber lining was installed. At the shaft bottom the access tunnel was found to be intact although some of the timber supports had fractured due to pressure and there were numerous chalk falls. The timber was replaced at shaft bottom, a new sump was constructed and the area generally made safe. 40 metres from the shaft, the circular bore of the 1882 tunnel was located. Having pumped out the first section of tunnel the condition was found to be poor with numerous collapses and broken ring linings. The falls were cleared, some linings repaired and new colliery type arches installed. Away from the cliff line the condition of the old tunnel improved although there were some falls to roof level leaving voids above that could be climbed through, these were cleared. A concrete bulkhead was installed at 810 metres and no attempt was made to reach the tunneling machine in the unsupported section of the tunnel beyond. With the abandonment of this channel tunnel scheme the shaft was backfilled but the 1882 tunnel was uncovered again in 1988 when it was bisected by the machine boring the present Channel Tunnel.
Access to the No.1 heading at Abbot's Cliff has been maintained. It has been intersected by one of a number of drainage adits driven from the base of the cliff under the main railway line. Until the late 1990's this adit was readily accessible but the portals of each adit have now been rebuilt and are secured by locked doors. The Channel Tunnel workings are accessed through Adit No 20 (Access is now controlled by Railtrack) where a timber lined square section tunnel (concrete lined where it passes under the railway line) meets the 1880 tunnel after 70 metres. At the junction, there is a short stub timber lined passage to the left; the original shaft would have been here with the boring machine assembled close to the shaft bottom. The bored tunnel is to the right and initially is in good condition with wooden boards on the floor. After 78 metres there is an inscription on the wall left by William Sharp, possibly one of the Welsh miners who bored the tunnel. Unfortunately Mr. Sharp made a spelling error, which he clumsily corrected and left, for posterity. The inscription reads 'This tunnel was begubnugn in 1880 William Sharp'.
Beyond the point the tunnel begins to dip downwards, there are a number
of chalk falls and the water gets deeper. There is some timber propping
on the right hand side. At 180 metres there is a large chalk fall, which
can be reached although the water is 3 feet deep at this point. Beyond
here the water quickly comes up to roof level and